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<div style="text-align:center"><img src="http://ti2.auctiva.com/sw/java.gif" border="0"><br><table align="center"><tr><td height="28px" valign="middle" align="center"><font face="arial" size="2"><b><a href="http://emporium.auctiva.com/magoooood" target="_blank">magoooood store</a></b></font></td><td><a style="text-decoration:none" href="http://emporium.auctiva.com/magoooood" target="_blank"><img src="http://ti2.auctiva.com/sw/thumbgallery.gif" border="0"></a></td></tr></table></div> <img src="http://ti2.auctiva.com/web/aswCredit.gif" border="0"><br><a href="http://www.auctiva.com/?how=scLnk2" target="_blank"><img src="http://ti2.auctiva.com/images/sc1line2.gif" border="0"></a> ** Collection Set 4 Huge Signed Egyptian Papyrus Museum Art Paintings....32"X12" Inches ** ** Collection Set 4 Huge Signed Egyptian Papyrus Museum Art Paintings...32X12" Inches ** You are bidding on 4 Authentic Collection of Egyptian Papyrus Art paintings Size 32'' x 12'' Inches, which had been skilfully painted by Egyptian artisans on the highest quality papyrus and are characterized by their uniqueness. They are Signed By The Artist........(SEALED in a Plastic Wrap) Each papyrus comes with a Guarantee Certificate that assures the Papyrus to be planted in Egypt and has the same chemical and physical properties that our ancient Egyptian Papyrus had. The colourful hand drawing is very impressive. Perfect for adding life and color to your home or office. All our prints are of the best quality with brilliant colors. ** This print makes a great addition to any collection ** ** It also makes a great gift ** ....YOU WON"T FIND THIS COLLECTION ANYWHERE.... Historical Outline 1-Tutankhamun and shows the King and his wife Ankhesenamun in a boat This scene is a detail from the shrine of Tutankhamun and shows the King and his wife Ankhesenamun in a boat made of papyrus stems navigating through the papyrus marshes. Despite the richness of his burial, Tutankhamun remains an enigmatic figure. He died as young as 16 or 17 years of age. He was probably a son of King Akhenaton by one of his secondary wives. His wife Ankhesenamun was daughter of Akhenaton and Nefertiti. Tutankhamun came to the throne as a young child and ruled for about nine years under the regency of Vizier Ay and the strong influence of the army commander Horemheb. The main events of his reign were to move the capital of Egypt back from El-Amarna to Memphis and to begin the transiton from the monotheistic cult of Aton created by Akhenaton back to the polytheistic religion of Egypt with Amun-Ra again as the main God. There is little known about Ankhesenamun (meaning “She lives through Amun” or “Living through Amun”). She was initially known through her birth name of Ankhesenpaaten (meaning “She lives through the Aten” or “Living through the Aten”) in her earlier years of life. Written, throughout history, are variations of her name as this was altered during her marriage to Tutankhamun. She was approximately thirteen years old when she married Tutankhamun who was most likely her half-brother. Tutankhamun was probably around eight years old at the time that this marriage occurred. This history timeline is known as the Amarna Period. The alteration of names for both Tutankhamun and Ankhesenamun occurred as they changed their form of worship from one God to another. Their reign initially included the worship of the God Aten (known as “The Sun-Disc) and this eventually changed to the worship of the God Amun (known as the “The Hidden One”). Sometimes Ankhesenamun is written as Ankhesenamon, Ankhesenamum, and other variations on the name. What is known about Ankhesenamun is that she was born the third daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti. History tells us that there were at least six known daughters born to this famous couple; Meritaten, Meketaten, Ankhesenpaaten, Nefernefruaten ta-Sherit, Nefernefrure, and Setepenre. The first three daughters appear to have had a more prominent position in the family hierarchy as they are depicted more frequently in pictures than the last three daughters. It appears that Akhenaten, Ankhesenamun’s father, may have attempted to father children with the first three eldest daughters. It is suggested that Ankhesenamun’s second eldest sister may have died giving child birth. This is deducted from a scene found in the royal tomb which portrays a vivid display of this occurrence (a woman dying due to child birth). It is almost likely that Akhenaten also fathered children from his other two daughter’s Meritaten and Ankhesenamun. Those children carried the names of their respective mothers with the addition of “ta-sherit” (junior) after their names. Including “ta-sherit” to the name of children who had the same name as their respective mothers, appeared to be the standard practice of that time. As Nefertiti, Akhenaten’s queen, disappears from history, Akhenaten marries the eldest daughter Meritaten. She now becomes the Chief Queen after her mother Nefertiti. Also during Akhenaten’s reign he names Smenkhkare as co-regent (a person who would reign in conjunction with him). It was sometimes the practice of Kings or Pharoahs to name co-regents during their reign. Co-regents tended to be son’s or proposed heirs to the throne. During this time, Akhenaten decides to wed Meritaten (his daughter and current wife) to Smenkhkare for his wife. Akhenaten then takes Ankhesenamun, the third daughter, as his next new wife. Ankhesenamun now becomes the Chief wife of Akhenaten for a short period. It appears that shortly after, both Meritaten and Akhenaten die and then Smenkhkare marries Ankhesenamun. History shows that they are married for approximately one to three years and then Smenkhkare also dies. Tutankhamun is named the next pharaoh and Ankhesenamun and Tutankhamun are then married. Although both are still children, Tutankhamun and Ankhesenamun go on to rule Egypt over the next ten years. During the ten years Ankhesenamun gives birth to two children (both girls). Both girls are born premature and die. One of the children is now known to have had a condition called Spengel’s deformity in conjunction with spina bifida and scoliosis. The two mummy encasements were found during the excavation oDuring their reign, history shows that Tutankhamun had an official adviser named Ay who most likely was the grandfather of Ankhesenamun. In addition, it seems that Ay most likely took advantage of the fact that both Tutankhamun and Ankhesenamun were very young and he most probably had a heavy hand in molding and shaping Tutankhamun’s thinking in the early years. This likely occurred as changes and decisions during those early years of Tutankhamun’s rule carried the weight of a more-versed and more-mature ruler and could not have been done by a child of eight years old. As Tutankhamun and Ankhesenamun began to mature, Tutankhamun suddenly died for no apparent reason. Tutankhamun was about 18 years of age when he passed away and once again Ankhesenamun was left without a husband. The standard mourning period was 70 days and it appears that several major things occurred during this timeframe; 1) Tutankhamun’s burial site seems to have been put together in a haphazardly way, 2) Ankhesenamun is not mentioned or depicted at the burial site or are there any personal items of Ankhesenamun buried with Tutankhamun as this was the standard practice of including “wifely items” with the dead pharaohs, and 3) History now shows us that Ankhesenamun may have tried to contact the Hittite King Suppiluliumas for help. King Suppiluliumas was a well-known enemy of Egypt at that time. Upon further review of Tutankhamun’s burial site, it seems that the walls were not fully painted as would have been fitting for a pharaoh of that time. Why? It also appears that many of the items found in the tomb were borrowed and did not belong strictly to Tutankhamun. Again the question is why? Speculation is that Ay, who was most probably in control of the burial procedures, was in a hurry to get everything completed and sealed as he may have been the person responsible for Tutankhamun’s death. Why does speculation lean toward that theory? Most likely because he had much control over the rule of Egypt during Tutankhamun’s rule until the boy king began to mature. He probably wanted him out of the way. In addition, history shows that he married Ankhesenamun shortly after Tutankhamun died and thereby became Egypt’s new pharaoh. Upon review of Tutankhamun’s skull, there is some evidence that Tutankhamun may have died a more brutal death than once thought and Ay is at the top of the list as a possible murderer. In addition, the standard practice of that time would have been to mention and provide many items of the “Chief wife” of a pharaoh in a burial site. Unfortunately, there is little mention of Ankhesenamun at the burial site. The fact that any personal items belonging to Ankhesenamun at Tutankhamun’s tomb are missing make things even more suspicious. Why would this occur? Could it be that Ay may have been planning to take Ankhesenamun (most probably his granddaughter) as his wife and thereby become the new Pharaoh? It would not have been fitting to have his new wife depicted in Tutankhamun’s tomb. By marrying Ankhesenamun he would then have a direct link to the throne and be more readily accepted as Egypt’s new ruling pharaoh. The third suspicious piece to this puzzle is a letter sent to a Hittite King named Suppiluliumas from an Eqyptian queen. There is speculation that the letter could have been sent from another queen because the names referenced in the letter do not specifically mention Ankhesenamun or Tutankhamun but rather use the names Dahamunzu and her dead husband Niphururiya. However, upon further review of the Hittite phonetic translations of Egyptian language at that time, it would have been translated to point towards Ankhesenamun as the queen asking for help and Tutankhamun as the king having died. The letter states, “My husband has died and I have no son. They say about you that you have many sons. You might give me one of your sons to become my husband. Never shall I pick out a servant of mine and make him my husband!...I am afraid!” Why would Ankhesenamun be afraid? Could it be that she knew that Ay had contributed to her husband’s death? Could it be that she had seen Ay depicted in Tutankhamun’s tomb wearing the royal crown’s of Egypt with his name clearly written in hieroglyphs as the presiding priest over Tutankhamun’s picture? Upon receiving the request for help from the Eqyptian queen, King Suppiluliumas sent Hattusa-zita, a chamberlain, to verify that this was a true request and not a plan of treachery. Hattusa-zita returned verifying that this was not a scheme but rather a true plea for help. King Suppiluliumas then sent his youngest son Zanannza to marry the Egyptian queen (more than likely Ankhesenamun). Upon entering Egypt the whole group was murdered. Ankhesenamun was left with no other alternative than to marry Ay who was at least 40 years her senior. A blue-glass finger ring has since been found containing both Ankhesenamun and Ay’s engraved names. This is further evidence that this marriage took place after Tutankhamun’s death. Shortly thereafter, Ankhesenamun disappears from history and even in Ay’s tomb there is no evidence that she was the chief wife. Rather, it is Tiy who appears in Ay’s tomb. But as history writes itself, Ankhesenamun had married 4 pharaohs in her short lifetime; Akhenaten (her father), Smenkhkare (more than likely her half brother), Tutankhamun (more than likely her half brother), and Ay (probably her grandfather). 2- Royal Musicans Although music existed in prehistoric Egypt, the evidence for it becomes secure only in the historical (or "dynastic" or "pharaonic") period--after 3100 BCE. Music formed an important part of Egyptian life, and musicians occupied a variety of positions in Egyptian society. Music found its way into many contexts in Egypt: temples, palaces, workshops, farms, battlefields and the tomb. Music was an integral part of religious worship in ancient Egypt, so it is not surprising that there were gods specifically associated with music, such as Hathor and Bes (both were also associated with dance, fertility and childbirth). All the major categories of musical instruments (percussion, wind, stringed) were represented in pharaonic Egypt. Percussion instruments included hand-held drums, rattles, castanets, bells, and the sistrum--a highly important rattle used in religious worship. Hand clapping too was used as a rhythmic accompaniment. Wind instruments included flutes (double and single, with reeds and without) and trumpets. Stringed instruments included harps, lyres, and lutes--plucked rather than bowed. Instruments were frequently inscribed with the name of the owner and decorated with representations of the goddess (Hathor) or god (Bes) of music. Both male and female voices were also frequently used in Egyptian music. Professional musicians existed on a number of social levels in ancient Egypt. Perhaps the highest status belonged to temple musicians; the office of "musician" (shemayet) to a particular god or goddess was a position of high status frequently held by women. Musicians connected with the royal household were held in high esteem, as were certain gifted singers and harp players. Somewhat lower on the social scale were musicians who acted as entertainers for parties and festivals, frequently accompanied by dancers. Informal singing is suggested by scenes of workers in action; captions to many of these pictures have been interpreted as words of songs. Otherwise there is little evidence for the amateur musician in pharaonic Egypt, and it is unlikely that musical achievement was seen as a desirable goal for individuals who were not professionals. The ancient Egyptians did not notate their music before the Graeco-Roman period, so attempts to reconstruct pharaonic music remain speculative. Representational evidence can give a general idea of the sound of Egyptian music. Ritual temple music was largely a matter of the rattling of the sistrum, accompanied by voice, sometimes with harp and/or percussion. Party/festival scenes show ensembles of instruments (lyres, lutes, double and single reed flutes, clappers, drums) and the presence (or absence) of singers in a variety of situations. 3- Goddesses on Boat The ancient Egyptian sky-goddess Nut.. over a solar boat.Nut was the barrier separating the forces of chaos from the ordered cosmos in this world. The god Ra was said to enter her mouth after setting in the evening and travel through her body during the night to be reborn each morning. She also swallows the stars and have them reborn later. In the death cult she plays a part in the resurrection of the dead; she is portrayed on the inside of the lids of the sarcophagi. The pharaoh was said to enter her body after death, from which he would later be resurrected. Here she protects the solar boat used to carry the deceased into their new life in the afterworld. The boat contains gods and goddesses to help the deceased. 4- Judgment Day The Ancient Soul being Weighed The Judgment of the Dead is known primarily after the New Kingdom and later on, through illustrated vignettes appearing on funerary papyri that were part of the Book of Coming Forth by Day. However, two earlier versions of this process are attested in Egyptian texts. The earliest, the divine tribunal that continuously operated in the under-world, is attested first in the late Old Kingdom hieroglyphic tomb-chapel inscriptions, with threats to would-be tomb robber, and in Hieratic "letters to the Dead." An inscription from the tomb of the 5th Dynasty official named Hetep-her-akhet reads: "As for any people who would enter this tomb unclean and do something evil to it, there will be judgment against them by the great god." Letters to the dead were prompted by some unfortunate situation in which the writer or close relative of the deceased has found himself. The deceased, or some other person in the afterlife, is addressed in the letter as the cause of the misfortune, and is requested to either desist from its malign influences or to institute legal proceedings in the beyond against that one responsible for the misfortune. One example of such an Old Kingdom letter is by a man named Shepsi who addresses his father, "Is it in your presence that I am being injured by my brother even though there is nothing that I, your son, did or said?….Since you had said regarding me, your son, "It is in my son Shepsi that all my property shall be vested,"….Now my fields have been taken possession of by Sher’s son Henu. Now that he (my brother) is with you in the same city of the dead, you must institute litigation with him since you have witnesses at hand in the same city." References to these continuous tribunals can also be read in the early Middle Kingdom funerary literature called the Coffin Texts. Here the afterlife is a continuation of life on earth, with death merely a temporary interruption. Plaintiffs can bring cases to the authorities, who would then execute justice. The "great god" of the tribunal is not named, though he may be Osiris, the god who is lord of the underworld. One example of such a textual reference comes from Coffin Text spell 335 which says in part: "Hail to you, Lords of Truth, the tribunal which is behind Osiris, which puts terror into those who are false when those whom it protects are at risk." In the later version of the judgment, when the divine tribunal determines whether the deceased individual is worthy of eternal life, death marks the moment determining the immortality of the individual. People are now considered either pure or evil, with the evil dying a second death to become mt, or damned. But the good become transfigured as akh or spirit. This divine judgment is expressed figuratively by the use of scales which were used by accounting scribes to weigh precious metals with objective calculation in treasury accounts. At death, each individual becomes Osiris if declared justified or "true of voice", resuscitated into new life, as Isis did when she magically revived Osiris, and like Horus, who was declared as "telling the truth" in his physical and legal battles with Set over the inheritance of the kingship from Osiris. Unambiguous references to scales of reckoning occur in the Coffin Texts, such as CT spell 335 and CT spell 452, the latter referring to "that balance of Ra on which Ma’at is raised,"; four coffins of the 12th Dynasty bear a text of CT spell 338in which the dead are polarized as good and evil. This text refers to various divine tribunals, and asks that the deceased be vindicated against his foes just as the god Thoth vindicated Osiris against his own foes. One line reads, "the tribunal which is in Abydos on that night of counting the dead and the blessed spirits." The Instruction of Merikare says "Do not trust in length of years-they are a lifetime as an hour; when a man is left over after mourning, his deeds are piled up beside him….As for the man who reaches them, without doing evil, he will abide there like a god, roaming free like the lords of time." It was apparently important to the ancient Egyptians that they be remembered as having lived rightly and in accordance with some ethical guidelines. The 6th Dynasty tomb of an official named Nefer-Seshem-Re carefully noted that the deceased "spoke truly, did right, spoke fairly, rescued the weak from one stronger than he, gave bread to the hungry, clothes to the undressed, respected father, pleased mother." [paraphrased] The passage of centuries did nothing to change this desire to be remembered as having lived rightly. The New Kingdom tomb of the mayor Paheri listed his own good conduct: "I told no lie to anyone…. I did the tasks as they were ordered…I was a model of kindliness." The classic exposition of judgment at death comes in the Book of Coming Forth by Day, in Chapter/spell 30 and in chapter/spell 125 and the so-called weighing of the heart. To the Egyptians, the heart, or ib, rather than the brain, was the source of human wisdom and the center of emotions and memory. Because of its apparent links with intellect, personality and memory, it was considered the most important of the internal organs. It could reveal the person’s true character, even after death, so the belief went, and therefore, the heart was left in the deceased’s body during mummification. In the weighing of the heart rite, the heart of the deceased is weighed in the scale against the feather of the goddess Ma’at, who personifies Order, Truth, what is right. Spell 30 was often inscribed on heart scarabs that were placed with the deceased. The spell appeals to the heart not to weigh down the balance or testify against the deceased to the keeper of the balance. Part of the spell gives instructions for making the heart scarab: "Make a scarab of nephrite adorned with gold and put within a man’s breast, and perform for him the ceremony of opening the mouth, the scarab being anointed with myrrh." Judgment of the Dead In spell 125, the deceased is first led into the broad court of the Two Maats or Two Truths, to declare innocence of wrongs before the great god, and before the full tribunal of forty-two divine assessors, including Osiris and Ra. Some of the denials reflect the precepts of the Instruction genre of Egyptian literature, whereby the father instructs a son or apprentice in the correct way to behave. Others are related to the priestly oaths of purity taken at the moment of entering priestly service. The style of the declarations are in the form of "I have not done X." The illustrations, or vignettes, of the "weighing of the heart" often include the four sons of Horus as protectors of the internal organs of the deceased after mummification. These were represented by the canopic jars. They were named Imseti, who was human-headed and guarded the liver, Hapi, who was baboon-headed, guarding the lungs, Dua-mutef, jackal-headed, guarding the stomach, and Qebeh-senuef, falcon-headed, for the intestines. During the 18th Dynasty, the scales are depicted as being managed by Thoth, in his baboon form, beside the god Osiris who is seated on his throne. Later 18th Dynasty versions make Anubis, god of embalming, the deity in charge of the weighing, and they now add a monster called Ammut, Swallower of the Damned. If the heart proved to be false, and the deceased wicked, Ammut would swallow the heart and the deceased would die a second death. The earliest manuscript showing Anubis and Ammut is the Book of Nebqed during the reign of either Tuthmosis IV or Amenhotep III. Ramessid illustrations start to shift from the weighing of the heart to the declaration of innocence. In the Papyrus of Hunefer, Anubis leads the deceased to the scales, which he then oversees alongside Ammut, following which Anubis leads the justified deceased to the enthroned Osiris. Supplementary figures in the vignettes often include the goddesses Isis and Nephthys supporting Osiris, and in the standard Late period version, one or two figures of the goddess Maat. Later vignettes generally include a secondary human figure beside the scales: from the Ramesside period it was the ba-soul of the deceased; from the Third Intermediate Period, it was a crouching figure; and from the Late Period, it was a divine child on a scepter. I'll email you as soon as possible after the auction ends; I ask that you please respond within 7 days. Payment is respectfully required within 7 days after the last winning auction is closed. After which I reluctantly initiate the non-paying bidder procedure and you will receive a strike on your account.We accept Paypal. Items are always described to the best of my ability, and I will guarantee my descriptions to be as accurate as possible. If there is an obvious discrepancy between the auction listing and the received item, the item can be returned for a refund of the auction close price. If there is a mistake on my part (e.g. wrong item shipped), I will provide a full refund or exchange for the proper item. WE SHIP WORLDWIDE Shipping CostServices Available (CANADA)Shipping insuranceAdditional Items$12.99Canada Post Regular Parcel$250% OFF Shipping *** We will gladly combine shipping if you purchase multiple items to reduce shipping cost ***Each additional item will be 50% off shipping fees. The heaviest item will charge full price. 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